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1型糖尿病是由什么原因引起的?

来源:可可英语 编辑:Kelly ?  VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

What causes type 1 diabetes?

1型糖尿病是由什么原因引起的?

Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (meaning the body attacks itself by mistake) that destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin, Katherine Araque, M.D., director of endocrinology of the Pacific Neuroscience Institute at Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif., tells Health. What actually causes that autoimmune reaction in the first place isn't completely known at this time.

1型糖尿病是由自身免疫反应(也就是说身体在误伤自己)引起的,该反应会破坏胰腺中制造胰岛素的细胞,加利福尼亚州圣莫尼卡市普罗维登斯圣约翰健康中心太平洋神经科学研究院的分泌科主任凯瑟琳·阿拉克(Katherine Araque)医学博士对《健康》杂志说道。目前尚不完全了解导致自身免疫反应的真正原因。

This process can go on for months or even years before someone develops symptoms, the CDC says. Unlike type 2 diabetes, diet and lifestyle factors don't cause type 1 diabetes. But beyond that, there are some factors that put someone at a greater risk of developing type 1 diabetes:

美疾控中心表示,在症状显露之前,这一过程可能会持续数月甚至数年。与2型糖尿病不同,饮食和生活方式因素不会导致1型糖尿病。但除此之外,其它一些因素却与1型糖尿病患病风险息息相关:

A family history of the disease

1型糖尿病家族史

Having a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes, raises a person's risk of also developing the disease—but it's not a given. "There certainly is an inherited tendency but that alone is not sufficient," Dr. Dungan says, noting that plenty of people have the disease with no immediate relatives who also have it. "It's not like type 2 diabetes, where almost everyone has a close relative with it," she says.

父母/兄弟/姐妹患有1型糖尿病会增加一个人的患病风险——但这并不是绝对的。“遗传趋势当然存在,但仅有遗传趋势却不足以致病,”邓根医生说道,并指出,很多1型糖尿病患者并没有直系亲属也患有这一疾病。“这与2型糖尿病不同,大多数患者的近亲也患有这一疾病,”她说道。

1型糖尿病是由什么原因引起的.png.jpg

A younger age

年龄较小

Type 1 diabetes usually starts when someone is a child or young adult but, the CDC points out, you can technically develop the disease at any age. "It's not that there's an absence of risk as one gets older; It's just that the incidence of type 2 diabetes goes up with age," Dr. Dungan says.

儿童或青年人更易患1型糖尿病,美疾控中心指出,但实际上,任何年龄段都有可能患上该疾病。“年龄大的人也存在患病风险;而2型糖尿病的患病风险是随着年龄增加而增加的,”邓根医生说道。

Environmental factors

环境因素

It's possible that environmental factors might be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes, like patients having a virus, like enterovirus, or being exposed to certain things before they develop the disease, but it's more of a theory at this point. "It hasn't really been well understood," Dr. Dungan says.

1型糖尿病的发生可能与环境因素有关,例如病毒(如肠病毒)患者或患者在患病前暴露于特定环境中,但目前这只停留在理论阶段。邓根医生说:“我们尚未完全了解。”

Given that the cause of type 1 diabetes isn't completely understood, scientists haven't figured out a set way to prevent the disease. "There are multiple ongoing trials right now to try to figure out how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but we haven't extrapolated anything yet," Dr. Araque says.

鉴于1型糖尿病的病因尚不明确,科学家还未找到预防这一疾病的方法。阿拉克医生说道:“目前正在进行多项试验以找出预防1型糖尿病的方法,但尚未有突破性进展。”

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adj. 许多,多种多样的
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pancreas ['pæŋkriəs]

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saint [seint]

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